A qualitative research methods is a process of research and understanding based on methodologies that investigate social phenomena and human problems. In this approach, the researcher makes a complex picture, examines words, detailed reports from the respondents’ views, and conducts studies in natural situations. Bogdan and Taylor (Moleong, 2007: 3) suggest that qualitative methodology is a research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written and oral words from people and observed behavior. Hence, this is the advantages of qualitative research methods. Researchers don’t need to use complicated statistical methods. it just use descriptive analysis.
Moreover, Qualitative research conducts natural conditions and discovery. In qualitative research, researchers are key instruments. Therefore, researchers must have the provision of theory and broad insights. So they can ask questions, analyze, and construct the object under study to be clearer. This research emphasizes the meaning and bound values. Qualitative research is powerful if problems are not yet clear. Even more, It finds out hidden meanings, understand social interactions, develop theories, ascertain data truths, and to examine developmental history.
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Simply, Qualitative research is different from other studies. To find these differences, there are come characteristics of qualitative research:
- In qualitative research, a researcher collects data in original or natural conditions.
- Particularly, qualitative research concerns with the process than the results. It means in data collection often pay attention to the results and consequences of various variables influencing each other.
- The background of behavior or deeds search for meaning. Thus, what is behind human behavior is central to qualitative research. Prioritizing direct data or “first hand”. Qualitative research demands as much as possible for researchers to conduct their own research activities.
- Furthermore, the triangulation method is extensively both triangulation methods and triangulation of data sources.
- Concern on contextual details. The researcher collects and records very detailed data about things in the study.
- The subject under study is the same position as the researcher, so it is not an object or a lesser position.
- Prioritizing the emic perspective, meaning that the respondent’s views are concerned, namely how he views and interprets the world and its standpoint.
- Verification. The application of this method is through conflicting or negative cases.
- Use the “Audit trail”. The method in question is to include the method of data collection and analysis.
- Theory is basic. With data obtained from research in the field, formulate conclusions or theories.
Advantages of Qualitative Research
- Purposive sampling. The qualitative method uses a small sample and is chosen according to the purpose of the study. Less data means less cost.
- Since the beginning of the study. The data obtained are immediately analyzed until considered adequate results. it does not require a long process of data analysis.
- The researcher as a research tool, means that the researcher as the main tool for collecting data is the data collection method based on observations and interviews. It has flexibility in data collection
- In qualitative research, descriptive data collection write in the report. Data obtained from this research are in the form of words, images, and not numbers. it does not require complicated statistical methods.
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