In general, a researcher arranges hypotheses based on the formulation of problems and theoretical studies. For quantitative research, the hypothesis used is a statistical hypothesis, meaning that the hypothesis must be tested using statistical rules. Whereas for qualitative research does not need to use statistical rules. In a quantitative study, the formulated statistical hypothesis has two forms, the null hypothesis (Ho) and the alternative hypothesis (Ha). In general, hypotheses for quantitative research have three types: Descriptive Hypothesis, Comparative Hypothesis, and Associative Hypothesis.

## Descriptive Hypothesis

Descriptive hypotheses are temporary conjectures about the value of a variable, not expressing relationships or comparisons. Remember, only about the value of a variable. Statistics used to test descriptive hypotheses are sample mean tests or standard deviation tests. A researcher formulates hypothesis based on the problem formulation and theoretical study. Following are some examples of problem formulations (PF), hypotheses (H).

PF: What is the percentage of junior high school mathematics mastery in the subject matter of the set?

H: Junior high school mathematics teacher mastery in the subject matter reaches 70%.

PF: How good is the grade XI mastery of class XI material?

H: mastery of class X material by class XI students reaches 75%.

## Comparative Hypothesis

The comparative hypothesis is a temporary construct that compares the values of two variables. That is, in the comparative hypothesis, we do not determine with certainty the value of the variables we examine, but compare. Means, there are two variables that are the same, but different samples. The statistics used to test this comparative hypothesis are (assuming normality is met) using a t-test. But before that, the normality and homogeneity must be tested first.

Following are some examples of problem formulations (PF), hypotheses (H).

PF: Is there a difference in the problem-solving abilities of students who got X learning better than students who got Y learning?

H: the problem solving ability of students who get learning X is better than students who get learning Y.

PF: Are there differences in the critical thinking skills of students who study during the day are better than students who study in the morning?

H: there is no difference in the critical thinking skills of students who study in the afternoon with students who study in the morning.

The two hypothetical examples above are slightly different. In the first hypothesis, we claim that the problem solving ability of students who get learning X is better than students who get learning Y. While in the second hypothesis, there is no one-sided claim that the critical thinking skills of students who learn during the day are better or worse. We only state that there are differences. Which problem is better, it does not concern this hypothesis. The first hypothesis is a one-party test hypothesis, while the second hypothesis is called a two-party test hypothesis.

## Associative Quantitative Hypothesis

The associative hypothesis is a relationship between the relationship between two variables, the dependent variable and the independent variable. The statistics are used to test this comparative hypothesis are (assuming normality is met) using Product Moment Correlation, Double Correlation, or Partial Correlation.

The following are examples of problem formulations (PF), hypotheses (H).

PF: Is there a relationship between student achievement and the level of student anxiety?

H: there is a negative relationship between student achievement with the level of student anxiety.

PF: Is there a relationship between student learning outcomes and seating arrangements?

H: there is a positive relationship between student achievement with the level of student anxiety.

In the first hypothesis there are the words ‘negative relationship’. Negative relationship means inversely proportional. That is if the level of student anxiety is high, then student achievement is low. Whereas in the second hypothesis there are the words ‘positive relationship’. Positive relationship means directly proportional. It means if the seating arrangement is good, the student learning outcomes are high.

### Ayat HIdayat Huang

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