Quantitative research method defines as a scientific approach that views a reality. It should be classified, concrete, observable and measurable the relationship of variables. Commonly, the data presents in the form of numbers and uses statistics method as a tool of analysis.
Quantitative research process begins with an activity of exploring the problems. Therefore, formulating research problems must be clearly. Even though, research problem in quantitative research is still temporary but it will develop after along the process. Relevant theories are to design research models and research parameters as well as the basis for making hypotheses. Theory will be the basis in the preparation of variables. In survey research, questionnaires/instruments are arranged based on research variables. The instrument need to test whether is valid and reliable. Data analysis which leads to examine the hypothesis.
Basically, quantitative analysis consists of several stages. Approximately, formulating the problem, constructing a model, obtaining data, finding solutions, testing the hypothesis, analyzing the data, and interpreting the results.
Method of analysis should refer to the purpose of study. Previously, researcher needs to identify whether the data meets the basic assumptions. While using questionnaire, data checking needs to support analysis. It need to clean the data, extreme values (outliers), completeness the data.
Selection of Quantitative Methods
Format of quantitative research in social science depends on the problem and purpose of the research. There are two quantitative research formats: descriptive format and explanatory format.
The quantitative approach is deductive (from general to specific). It starts from a theory. This approach aims to test hypotheses and establish the facts or truths of a theory. The theories put forward as a standard to state whether or not a phenomenon occurs. Hypothesis is as a reinforcement of the assumption that quantitative research intends to see the relationship between variables. The final orientation is to make a conclusion that can be generalized more broadly. At the beginning, it has to be clear objections, and clearly design. For example, clarity of design, subject, variables, data, and analysis techniques. Hence, the quantitative approach is more stable. It does not allow re-designing the research procedure.
Quantitative research Characteristics
Certainly, Quantitative research has characteristics as follows:
Using deductive thinking patterns that try to understand a phenomenon by using general concepts to explain specific phenomena .
The logic of thought used is the logic of positivism and avoiding things that are subjective.
The aim of quantitative research is to compile nomothetic science, that is science that seeks to make laws from generalizations.
Data collection measures objective and use standard tools.
Contrarily, researchers position separately from the object of research. so the researcher does not emotionally involve with the research subject. Otherwise, qualitative research depends on the researcher.
In data analysis, researchers require to understand statistical techniques. It is able to analyze data after collected.
The quantitative research process follows a planned procedure involving numbers and data quantification.
The results of the study are generalizations and predictions. It is free of the context of time and situation.
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